Unanisme et unisexualité: étude sur differentes manifestations de l'instinct sexual (1896), by French poet and academic physician Marc-André Raffalovich (1864-1934), introduced to France the contemporary notion of homosexuality. In his day, Raffalovich was the most prolific and provocative “medical” writer in French on homosexuality and his milieu included personalities such as Oscar Wilde, W. B. Yeats, and Raffalovich’s longlife partner John Gray. This extensive monograph, published as part of the “Bibliothèque de criminologie” series, takes positions notably divergent from other French physicians of the period. Raffalovich rejects the models of homosexuality as pederasty and degeneracy that monopolized the scientific writings of his time; in contrast, he defines homosexuality or “unisexualité” (as he called it) as a “form of sexuality in which sexual attraction is directed towards a person of the same sex”. He also makes a distinction between congenital inversion, which was purely sexual and should be morally accepted, and acquired inversion, which was the result of vice and perversity, just like heterosexual perverts.